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ⓘ प्रोग्रामन भाषाओं की सूची, वर्गानुसार. MIPS for MIPS architecture Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages AKI AvtoKod Inzhener, Engineers Autocode fo ..

प्रोग्रामन भाषाओं की सूची (वर्गानुसार)
                                     

ⓘ प्रोग्रामन भाषाओं की सूची (वर्गानुसार)

  • MIPS for MIPS architecture Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages
  • AKI AvtoKod "Inzhener", "Engineers Autocode" for Minsk family of computers
  • HLA High Level Assembly
  • MI Machine Interface, compile-time intermediate language
  • NEAT Nationals Electronic Autocoder Technique, for NCR computers, evolved into NEAT/3 comment: NEAT/3 was more an RPG clone than an assembler type language
  • Motorola 68k Assembly for Motorola 68000 family of CPUs
  • MASM Microsoft Macro Assembler
  • Sphinx C-- mixes Assembly commands with C-like structures
  • HLASM High Level Assembler, for mainframes
  • C-- name used by a few languages that bring C language closer to Assembly
  • EDTASM Microsoft editor/assembler for Motorola 6809 on the Color Computer
  • ASPER ASsembler for PERipheral Processor Units of Control Data Corporation computer systems pre-COMPASS
  • PAL-III for DEC PDP-8
  • ASEM-51
  • COMPASS COMPrehensive ASSembler
  • LC-3
  • BAL Basic AssembLer - for IBM System/360 and later mainframe systems
  • MACRO-11 for DEC PDP-11
  • Linoleum for cross-platform use
  • Yasm Rewrite of NASM
  • ASCENT ASsembler for CENTral Processor Unit of Control Data Corporation computer systems pre-COMPASS
  • SSK Sistema Simvolicheskogo Kodirovaniya, or "System of symbolic coding" for Minsk family of computers
  • FASM Flat Assembler; IA-32, IA-64
  • MACRO-20 for DEC DECSYSTEM-20
  • TASM Turbo Assembler, Borland
  • PASM for Parrot virtual machine
  • MACRO-32 for DEC VAX
  • FAP
  • RosAsm 32-bit Assembler; The Bottom Up Assembler
  • NASM Netwide Assembler
  • SC123 for educational computer developed at CSU
  • GAS GNU Assembler
  • Emu8086 x86 assembler and Intels 8086 microprocessor emulator
                                     

1. कमाण्ड लाइन इंटरफेस युक्त भाषाएँ Command line interface languages

  • Windows PowerShell Microsoft.NET-based CLI
  • CLIST MVS Command List
  • .bat Windows batch file language as understood by COMMAND.COM and Command Prompt
  • EA_QB_Command
  • 4DOS extended command-line shell for IBM PCs
  • DCL DIGITAL Command Language - standard CLI language for VMS
  • DOS batch language
  • CHAIN Datapoint
  • Ch C-compatible shell
  • Es shell based on Rc
  • bash the Bourne-Again shell from GNU/FSF
  • REXX
  • Shadow Command Line Interface
  • SpiritShadow Command Line Interface 2009
  • tcsh a UNIX shell
  • zsh a UNIX shell
  • ksh a standard UNIX shell, written by David Korn
  • Tandem Advanced Command Language TACL
  • CMS EXEC
  • JCL punch card-oriented batch control language for IBM System/360 family mainframes
  • sh the standard UNIX shell, written by Stephen R. Bourne
  • Rc command-line shell for Plan 9
  • csh C-like shell from Bill Joy at UC Berkeley
  • EXEC 2
                                     

2. कम्पाइल की जाने वाले भाषाएँ Compiled languages

  • SMALL Machine Algol Like Language
  • Ada multi-purpose language
  • ALGOL extremely influential language design. The second high level language compiler.
  • D Attempts a "C++ done right" philosophy
  • CLush Lush
  • BASIC some dialects, including the first version of Dartmouth BASIC
  • Ateji PX, an extension of the Java language for parallelism
  • Dylan
  • COBOL
  • CLEO Clear Language for Expressing Orders used the compiler for the British Leo computers
  • DASL compiles into Java, JavaScript, JSP, Flex, etc., which are further compiled into a.war file
  • Corn
  • C++
  • eC Ecere C
  • Eiffel object-oriented language developed by Bertrand Meyer
  • Common Lisp
  • dylan.NET
  • CLIPPER 5.3 Programming Language for dos base software
  • DIBOL Digital Interactive Business Oriented Language
  • C one of the most widely-used procedural programming languages
  • Ubercode
  • Sather
  • C# compiled into Intermediate Language which is used to generate a native image at runtime
  • Delphi Borlands Object Pascal development system
  • Cobra
  • Curl
  • Nemerle compiled into Intermediate Language bytecode
  • Scheme some implementations, e.g. Gambit
  • Alice
  • LabVIEW
  • Harbour
  • Forth professional systems, like VFX and SwiftForth
  • Fortran
  • Pascal most implementations
  • Java usually compiled into JVM bytecode although true native-code compiled versions exist
  • JOVIAL
  • Go
  • Haskell
  • RPG Report Program Generator
  • Standard ML
  • Objective-C
  • ppC++
  • ML
  • Smalltalk generally compiled to platform independent bytecode that runs on a Virtual Machine.
  • Plus
  • Factor
  • OCaml
  • WinDev
  • Visual Prolog
  • Turing
  • Visual FoxPro
  • X++
  • Z++
  • XL
  • Urq
  • Visual Basic earlier versions compiled directly to a native runtime. Recent.NET versions are compiled into Intermediate Language which is used to generate a native image at runtime
                                     

3. सहगामी भाषाएँ Concurrent languages

इन भाषाओं में ऐसे प्रावधान हैं जो एक साथ कई कार्य ककराने वाले प्रोग्राम लिखने मेंसहायक होती हैं।

  • Ateji PX an extension of the Java language for parallelism
  • Afnix – concurrent access to data is protected automatically previously called Aleph, but unrelated to Alef
  • X10
  • Cω – C Omega, a research language extending C#, uses asynchronous communication
  • Java
  • Erlang – uses asynchronous message passing with nothing shared
  • ConcurrentLua – a Lua extension
  • Clojure – a dialect of Lisp for the Java Virtual Machine
  • Cilk – a concurrent C
  • Join Java – concurrent language based on Java
  • Eiffel through the SCOOP mechanism, Simple Concurrent Object-Oriented Computation
  • Corn
  • Concurrent Pascal by Brinch-Hansen
  • ChucK – domain specific programming language for audio, precise control over concurrency and timing
  • Curry
  • Alef – concurrent language with threads and message passing, used for systems programming in early versions of Plan 9 from Bell Labs
  • E – uses promises, ensures deadlocks cannot occur
  • Go
  • Ada multi-purpose language
  • occam-π – a modern variant of occam, which incorporates ideas from Milners π-calculus
  • Joule – dataflow language, communicates by message passing
  • occam – influenced heavily by Communicating Sequential Processes CSP.
  • Limbo – relative of Alef, used for systems programming in Inferno operating system
  • Join-calculus
  • MultiLisp – Scheme variant extended to support parallelism
  • Mozart Programming System – multiplatform Oz
  • Oz – multiparadigm language, supports shared-state and message-passing concurrency, and futures
  • Scala – implements Erlang-style actors on the JVM
  • Pict – essentially an executable implementation of Milners π-calculus
  • SALSA – actor language with token-passing, join, and first-class continuations for distributed computing over the Internet
  • SR – research language
                                     

4. आंकड़ामुखी भाषाएँ Data-oriented languages

  • MUMPS an ANSI standard general purpose language with specializations for database work.
  • Clarion
  • Clipper
  • Tutorial D, see also The Third Manifesto
  • Visual FoxPro native rdbms engine, object oriented, functional, RAD
  • SPARQL
  • SQL
  • dBase a relational database access language
  • WebQL
                                     

5. डेटा-स्ट्रक्चर युक्त भाषाएँ Data-structured languages

  • Array-based
  • List-based
  • Stack-based

Assembly languages which statically link data inline with instructions can also be considered data-structured, in the most primitive way.

                                     

6. वर्णनात्मक भाषाएँ Declarative languages

ये भाषाएँ किसी समस्या का वर्णन करने के लिये उपयुक्त हैं न कि किसी समाधान या हल के लिये।

  • DASL partially Declarative languages, partially imperative programming
  • xBase
  • Lustre
  • XSL Transformations
  • Modelica
  • Poses++ language of the simulation system with the same name
  • Ant partially Declarative languages, partially imperative programming
  • SQL
  • MetaPost
  • Prolog
  • Analytica
                                     

7. इसोटेरिक भाषाएँ Esoteric languages

ये भाषाएँ दूसरी प्रोग्रामन भाषाओं की सीमा की जाँच के लिये डिजाइन की गयी होती हैं।

  • Brainfuck
  • Varaq Klingon programming language
  • Whitespace
  • Malbolge
  • INTERCAL
  • Qwertycode
  • Shakespeare
  • SNUSP
  • Chef
  • merd
  • Piet
  • Befunge
  • FALSE
  • LOLCODE
                                     

8. एक्टेंशन भाषाएँ Extension languages

ये भाषाएँ किसी दूसरे प्रोग्राम में इम्बेड किये जाने योग्य प्रोग्राम लिखने के लिये बनी हैं।

  • SQL
  • Vimscript
  • Ateji PX an extension of the Java language for parallelism
  • Tcl
  • DeScribe Macro Language DML - specific to the DeScribe Word Processor
  • VBA
  • Ruby Google SketchUp
  • S-Lang
  • AutoLISP specific to AutoCAD
  • Lua
  • Windows PowerShell
  • Python Maya and other 3-D animation packages
  • OptimJ an extension of the Java programming language with language support for writing optimization models and powerful abstractions for bulk data processing.
  • REXX
  • Guile
  • C/ALC/SIDE
  • CAL
                                     

9. चौथी पीढ़ी की भाषाएँ Fourth-generation languages

  • XMLmosaic
  • Ubercode VHLL, or Very High Level Language
  • ABAP
  • xBase
  • Oracle Express 4GL
  • Querix 4GL
  • Today
  • CorVision
  • Revolution not based on a database; still, the goal is to work at a higher level of abstraction than 3GLs
  • ADMINS
  • FOCUS
  • CSCs GraphTalk
  • Visual DataFlex
  • Easytrieve report generator now CA-Easytrieve Plus
  • SAS
  • MAPPER Unisys/Sperry now part of BIS
  • Sculptor
  • GEMBASE
  • Visual FoxPro
  • BuildProfessional
  • IBM Informix-4GL / Aubit-4GL
  • MARK-IV Sterling/Informatics now VISION:BUILDER of CA
  • LINC 4GL
  • Uniface
  • dylan.NET
  • Progress 4GL
                                     

10. फंशनल भाषाएँ Functional languages

ये भाषाएँ सभी प्रोग्रामों एवं सबरोटीनों को फंक्शन के रूप में परिभाषित करती हैं।

  • FPr
  • CAL
  • Curry
  • Clean purely functional
  • Haskell purely functional
  • Curl
  • Charity purely functional
  • Erlang
  • APL
  • F#
  • Lisp
  • Dylan
  • Little b
  • Common Lisp
  • Hop
  • Tea
  • Scheme
  • Clojure
  • Kite
  • Logo
  • Joy
  • J
  • ML
  • Mathematica
  • Alice
  • Standard ML
  • Miranda
  • Lush
  • Ocaml
  • Mythryl
  • Nemerle
  • Scala
  • Spreadsheets
  • Russell
  • Opal
  • R
  • Q programming language from Kx Systems
  • Poplog
  • REFAL
  • OPS5
  • Q equational programming language
                                     

11. Interactive mode languages

Interactive mode languages act as a kind of shell: expressions or statements can be entered one at a time, and the result of their evaluation is seen immediately.

  • S-Lang with the S-Lang shell, slsh
  • Haskell with the GHCi or Hugs interpreter
  • ML
  • MUMPS an ANSI standard general purpose language
  • Python
  • Forth
  • Mathematica
  • PostScript
  • Mythryl
  • FPr
  • Lua
  • Ruby with IRB
  • IDL
  • Scala
  • Windows PowerShell Microsoft.NET-based CLI
  • R
  • Erlang
  • Clojure
  • Fril
  • BASIC some dialects
  • Maple
  • F#
  • MATLAB
  • Perl with the perl shell, psh
  • Common Lisp
  • REXX
  • Scheme
  • Tcl with the Tcl shell, tclsh
  • Smalltalk anywhere in a Smalltalk environment
                                     

12. Interpreted languages

Interpreted languages are programming languages which programs may be executed from source code form, by an interpreter. Theoretically, any language can be compiled or interpreted, so the term *interpreted language* generally refers to languages that are commonly interpreted rather than compiled.

  • APL
  • Frink
  • AutoHotkey scripting language
  • Tea
  • FPr Virtual machine: Text is compiled to linked lists; linked lists are interpreted
  • Lisp
  • J
  • Eiffel via "Melting Ice Technology" in EiffelStudio
  • AutoIt scripting language
  • DATABUS later versions added optional compiling
  • Game Maker Language
  • BASIC some dialects
  • Groovy
  • Haskell
  • Forth interactive shell only; otherwise compiled to native or threaded code
  • Ant
  • Spin
  • VBScript
  • MUMPS an ANSI standard general purpose language
  • Pikt
  • S-Lang
  • Some scripting languages below
  • Python
  • Lush
  • Pascal early implementations
  • PCASTL
  • Tcl
  • PostScript
  • Windows PowerShell Microsoft.NET-based CLI
  • LPC
  • Ruby
  • R
  • TorqueScript
  • Perl
  • XMLmosaic
  • REXX
  • Lua
  • thinBasic scripting language
  • Mathematica
  • Maple
                                     

13. Iterative languages

Iterative languages are built around or offering generators.

  • Lua
  • C#
  • XL "iterator" construct
  • CLU
  • Aldor
  • Icon
  • Python
  • IPL-v
  • Cobra
  • Alphard
  • Sather
  • Eiffel, through "agents"
  • Lush
                                     

14. List-based languages – LISPs

List-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the list data structure.

  • Dylan
  • FPr
  • Joy
  • Lisp
  • Scheme
  • Logo
  • Common Lisp
  • Arc
  • R
  • Tcl
  • Tea
  • Lush
  • TRAC
                                     

15. Little languages

Little languages serve a specialized problem domain.

  • Comet is used to solve complex combinatorial optimization problems in areas such as resource allocation and scheduling.
  • apply is a domain-specific language for image processing on parallel and conventional architectures
  • awk can serve as a prototyping language for C, because the syntax is similar
  • SQL has only a few keywords, and not all the constructs needed for a full programming language. Many database management systems extend SQL with additional constructs as a stored procedure language.
                                     

16. Logic-based languages

इन्हें भी देखें:

Logic-based languages specify a set of attributes that a solution must have, rather than a set of steps to obtain a solution. Examples:

  • Mozart Programming System a multiplatform Oz
  • CLACL CLAC-Language
  • Fril
  • ALF
  • Janus
  • Oz
  • Alma-0
  • Leda
  • Curry
  • Mercury based on Prolog
  • Prolog formulates data and the program evaluation mechanism as a special form of mathematical logic called Horn logic and a general proving mechanism called logical resolution
  • Visual Prolog object-oriented Prolog extension
  • Strawberry Prolog standard Prolog with some extensions
  • Poplog
  • ROOP
                                     

17. Machine languages

Machine languages are directly executable by a computers CPU. They are typically formulated as bit patterns, usually represented in octal or hexadecimal. Each group of npatterns often 1 or more bytes causes the circuits in the CPU to execute one of the fundamental operations of the hardware. The activation of specific electrical inputs e.g., CPU package pins for microprocessors, and logical settings for CPU state values, control the processors computation. Individual machine languages are processor specific and are not portable. They are essentially always defined by the CPU developer, not by 3rd parties. The symbolic version, the processors assembly language, is also defined by the developer, in most cases. Since processors come in families which are based on a shared architecture, the same basic assembly language style can often be used for more than one CPU. Each of the following CPUs served as the basis for a family of processors:

  • StrongARM
  • Motorola 6800
  • IBM System/360
  • ARM
  • Motorola 68000 family
  • Intel 80x86
  • Intel 8008/8080/8085
  • MOS Tech 6502 and 6510 Commodore 64 CPU
  • National 32032
  • Sun SPARC, UltraSPARC
  • Power Architecture - POWER and PowerPC
  • MIPS R2000/R3000
                                     

18. Macro languages

इन्हें भी देखें:

Macro languages embed small pieces of executable code inside a piece of free-form text.

  • PHP
  • m4 originally from AT&T, bundled with UNIX
  • cpp the C preprocessor
  • SMX, dedicated to web pages

Scripting languages such as Tcl and ECMAScript have been embedded into applications so that they behave like macro languages.

                                     

19. Metaprogramming languages

Metaprogramming is writing of programs that write or manipulate other programs or themselves as their data or that do part of the work that is otherwise done at run time during compile time. In many cases, this allows programmers to get more done in the same amount of time as they would take to write all the code manually.

  • Python
  • Ruby
  • C++
  • Perl
  • Smalltalk
  • MetaL
  • Forth
  • Haskell
  • Lua
  • D
  • Maude system
  • Mathematica
  • MetaOCaml
  • XL concept programming
  • Curl
  • Nemerle
  • Lisp
                                     

20. Multiparadigm languages

Multiparadigm languages support more than one programming paradigm. They allow a program to use more than one programming style. The goal is to allow programmers to use the best tool for a job, admitting that no one paradigm solves all problems in the easiest or most efficient way.

  • Ada, imperative, object-oriented class-based)
  • Cobra, functional, contractual)
  • ActionScript
  • C++)
  • JScript
  • ALF functional, logic
  • DMDScript
  • BETA)
  • Curry
  • ChucK
  • APL functional, imperative
  • Dylan functional, object-oriented class-based)
  • Delphi, metaprogramming)
  • Corn)
  • Curl, metaprogramming)
  • ECMAScript)
  • Common Lisp, aspect-oriented)
  • Alma-0
  • D, metaprogramming)
  • ECMAScript for XML
  • C#, functional, declarative)
  • JavaScript
  • Leda)
  • Lasso macro, object-oriented prototype-based, procedural, scripting)
  • FPr function-level, object-oriented class-based)
  • Metaobject protocols object-oriented class-based, prototype-based)
  • J)
  • Lava object-oriented class-based, visual)
  • Objective Caml)
  • F#, language-oriented)
  • Eiffel imperative, object-oriented class-based, generic)
  • Fantom functional, object-oriented class-based)
  • Nemerle functional, object-oriented class-based, imperative, metaprogramming)
  • Lua)
  • Harbour
  • LabVIEW dataflow, visual
  • Oz functional evaluation: eager, lazy, logic, constraint, imperative, object-oriented class-based, concurrent, distributed)
  • Mythryl functional, imperative
  • Hop
  • Mozart Programming System multiplatform Oz
  • Tea)
  • SISAL
  • ROOP, rule-based)
  • Scala functional, object-oriented
  • Seed7
  • ppC++ imperative, object-oriented class-based)
  • Object Pascal imperative, object-oriented class-based)
  • Prograph dataflow, object-oriented class-based, visual)
  • Pliant)
  • Tcl)
  • Perl imperative, functional cant be purely functional, object-oriented, class-oriented, aspect-oriented through modules)
  • REBOL, metaprogramming dialected)
  • Ruby functional, object-oriented class-based)
  • Python functional, object-oriented class-based, imperative)
  • PHP imperative, object-oriented
  • Poplog
  • Spreadsheets functional, visual
  • R
  • Windows PowerShell)
  • XL concept programming approach
                                     

21. Object-oriented class-based languages

Class-based Object-oriented programming languages support objects defined by their class. Class definitions include member data. Message passing is a key concept if not the key concept in Object-oriented languages.

Polymorphic functions parameterized by the class of some of their arguments are typically called methods. In languages with single dispatch, classes typically also include method definitions. In languages with multiple dispatch, methods are defined by generic functions. There are exceptions where single dispatch methods are generic functions e.g. Bigloos object system.

                                     

21.1. Object-oriented class-based languages Single dispatch

  • E
  • Ubercode
  • Delphi
  • dylan.NET
  • Sather
  • ChucK
  • eC Ecere C
  • Eiffel
  • C++
  • Chrome
  • Ada 95 and Ada 2005 multi-purpose language
  • ColdFusion
  • Cobra
  • BETA
  • Corn
  • C#
  • Actor
  • D
  • DASL
  • Curl
  • X10
  • F-Script
  • Fortress
  • Tea
  • Fortran 2003
  • Harbour
  • Java
  • Join Java
  • FPr
  • J
  • Gambas
  • Groovy
  • Game Maker Language
  • Lua
  • Kite
  • Lava
  • LabVIEW
  • Modula-3 added more object oriented features to Modula-2
  • Modula-2
  • JavaScript
  • Nemerle
  • Mozart Programming System
  • IBM NetRexx
  • Objective Caml
  • Objective-C a superset of C adding a Smalltalk derived object model and message passing syntax
  • Object REXX
  • Oberon-2
  • Object Pascal
  • Moto
  • Oz
  • Smalltalk pure object-orientation, developed at Xerox PARC
  • Revolution programmer does not get to pick the objects
  • Little Smalltalk
  • Scala
  • ppC++
  • Prograph
  • PHP
  • Scratch
  • Pliant
  • Perl 5
  • Simula the first object oriented language, developed by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard
  • Seccia assisted object-oriented programming
  • Python object oriented interpretive language
  • Squeak
  • Ruby
  • F-Script
  • Bistro
  • VisualWorks
  • IBM VisualAge
  • SPIN
  • SuperCollider
  • VBScript Microsoft Office macro scripting language
  • XOTcl
  • Visual DataFlex
  • Visual FoxPro
  • X++
  • Visual Prolog
                                     

22. Object-oriented prototype-based languages

Prototype-based languages are object-oriented languages where the distinction between classes and instances have been removed:

  • JScript
  • ECMAScript for XML
  • JavaScript first named Mocha, then LiveScript
  • ABCL/1
  • ABCL/c plus
  • DMDScript
  • ECMAScript
  • ABCL/R2
  • ActionScript
  • Cecil
  • ABCL/R
  • Agora
  • Obliq
  • NewtonScript
  • REBOL
  • Slate
  • Etoys in Squeak
  • Glyphic Script
  • Io
  • TADS
  • R
  • Lisaac
  • Lua
  • MOO
  • Self the first prototype-based language, derived from Smalltalk
                                     

23. Off-side rule languages

Off-side rule languages are those where blocks are formed, indicated, by their indentation.

  • ISWIM, the abstract language that introduced the rule
  • ABC, Pythons parent
  • Boo
  • Python
  • Cobra
  • HyperTalk
  • Curry
  • Miranda, Haskells parent
  • Orwell
  • Haskell
  • Ivy
  • Pliant
  • Occam
  • SPIN
  • XL
                                     

24. Procedural languages

Procedural programming languages are based on the concept of the unit and scope the data viewing range of an executable code statement. A procedural program is composed of one or more units or modules, either user coded or provided in a code library; each module is composed of one or more procedures, also called a function, routine, subroutine, or method, depending on the language. Examples of procedural languages include:

  • ALGOL extremely influential language design. The second high level language compiler.
  • Ada multi-purpose language
  • SMALL Machine Algol Like Language
  • Curl
  • Component Pascal an Oberon-2 variant
  • eC Ecere C
  • BASIC BASICs are innocent of most modularity in especially versions prior to about 1990)
  • C# similar to Java/C++
  • C++ C with objects + much else
  • C
  • ColdFusion
  • DASL partially Declarative languages, partially imperative programming
  • D
  • Cobra
  • ECMAScript
  • dylan.NET
  • ECMAScript for XML
  • ChucK C/Java-like syntax, with new syntax elements for time and parallelism
  • COBOL
  • JavaScript first named Mocha, then LiveScript
  • Alma-0
  • Delphi
  • JScript
  • ActionScript
  • BLISS
  • DMDScript
  • Fortran better modularity in later Standards
  • Eiffel
  • F
  • FPC Pascal dialect
  • Tea
  • Java
  • HyperTalk
  • Groovy
  • Join Java
  • Harbour
  • Lasso
  • Lagoona
  • Modula-2 fundamentally based on modules
  • Oberon and Oberon-2
  • Seneca
  • JOVIAL
  • Component Pascal
  • Object Pascal
  • Occam
  • Nemerle
  • Pascal successor to Algol60 and predecessor of Modula-2
  • MATLAB
  • MUMPS more modular in its first release than a language of the time should have been; the standard has become still more modular since then
  • Perl
  • PL/C
  • PCASTL
  • Plus
  • Visual Basic
  • XL
  • PL/I large general purpose language, originally for IBM mainframes
  • R
  • VBScript
  • Rapira
  • RPG only available in IBMs System i midrange computers
  • X++
  • Visual FoxPro
  • S-Lang
  • XMLmosaic
  • Python
                                     

25. Reflective languages

Reflective languages let programs examine and possibly modify their high level structure at runtime. This is most common in high-level virtual machine programming languages like Smalltalk, and less common in lower-level programming languages like C. Languages and platforms supporting reflection:

  • C#
  • ECMAScript for XML
  • Cobra
  • Curl
  • JavaScript
  • Befunge
  • ActionScript
  • DMDScript
  • ChucK
  • Delphi
  • JScript
  • Component Pascal BlackBox Component Builder
  • ECMAScript
  • Aspect-oriented
  • Java Virtual Machine
  • Join Java
  • Java
  • Eiffel
  • Groovy
  • Forth
  • X10
  • Harbour
  • Scheme
  • Lisp
  • Common Lisp
  • Dylan
  • Logo
  • Clojure
  • Oberon-2 ETH Oberon System
  • PHP
  • Perl
  • Pliant
  • Maude system
  • Objective-C
  • .NET Framework Common Language Runtime
  • Pico
  • Poplog
  • POP-11
  • Lua
  • PCASTL
  • Prolog
  • Python
  • VisualWorks
  • Squeak
  • Ruby
  • Little Smalltalk
  • Self
  • Bistro
  • F-Script
  • IBM VisualAge
  • REBOL
  • Smalltalk pure object-orientation, originally from Xerox PARC
  • XOTcl
  • Tcl
  • Snobol
  • XL
  • X++
                                     

26. Rule-based languages

Rule-based languages instantiate rules when activated by conditions in a set of data. Of all possible activations, some set will be selected and the statements belonging to those rules will be executed. Examples of rule-based languages include:

  • CLIPS
  • Poses++ language of the simulation system with the same name
  • Constraint Handling Rules
  • Jess
  • OPS5
  • Prolog
                                     

27. Scripting languages

"Scripting language" has two apparently different, but in fact similar meanings. In a traditional sense, scripting languages are designed to automate frequently used tasks that usually involve calling or passing commands to external programs. Many complex application programs allow users to implement custom functions by providing them with built-in languages. Those which are of interpretive type, are often called scripting languages.

More recently many of these applications have chosen to "build in" traditional scripting languages, such as Perl or Visual Basic, but there are quite a few "native" scripting languages still in use. Many scripting languages are compiled to bytecode and then this usually platform independent bytecode is run through a virtual machine compare to Java.

  • ECMAScript for XML
  • ECMAScript
  • AWK
  • ColdFusion
  • JavaScript first named Mocha, then LiveScript
  • BeanShell
  • DMDScript
  • Ch Embeddable C/C++ interpreter
  • CLIST
  • AppleScript
  • JScript
  • ActionScript
  • PHP intended for Web servers
  • sed
  • Windows PowerShell Microsoft.NET-based CLI
  • S-Lang
  • Join Java
  • VBScript
  • Game Maker Language GML
  • TorqueScript
  • Tcl
  • Io
  • Revolution
  • Pikt
  • Tea
  • Python
  • CMS EXEC
  • EXEC 2
  • Ruby
  • MAXScript
  • MEL
  • Winbatch
  • Frink
  • Mondrian
  • JASS
  • Smalltalk
  • Many shell command languages such as the UNIX shell or DCL on VMS have powerful scripting capabilities.
  • Perl
  • Groovy
  • REBOL
  • R
  • ICI
  • Lua
  • REXX
  • F-Script
  • Mythryl
  • Falcon
                                     

28. Stack-based languages

इन्हें भी देखें:

Stack-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the stack data structure.

  • Cat
  • Forth
  • Poplog via its implementation language POP-11
  • RPL
  • Factor
  • Piet
  • Joy all functions work on parameter stacks instead of named parameters
  • PostScript
  • colorForth
  • Urq
                                     

29. Synchronous languages

इन्हें भी देखें:

Synchronous programming languages are optimized for programming reactive systems, systems that are often interrupted and must respond quickly. Many such systems are also called realtime systems, and are found often in embedded uses. Examples:

  • Signal
  • LEA
  • Esterel
  • Lustre
  • SyncCharts
  • Argus
  • Averest
                                     

30. Syntax handling languages

These languages assist with generating lexical analzyers and parsers for Context-free grammars.

  • lex Lexical Analysis, from Bell Labs
  • ANTLR
  • yacc yet another compiler compiler, from Bell Labs
  • Coco/R EBNF with semantics
  • GNU Flex FSFs version of Lex
  • M4
  • JavaCC
  • GNU bison FSFs version of Yacc
  • Rats!
                                     

31. Visual languages

इन्हें भी देखें:

Visual programming languages let users specify programs in a two-or more-dimensional way, instead of as one-dimensional text strings, via graphic layouts of various types.

  • Scratch written in and based on Squeak, a version of Smalltalk
  • Pict programming language
  • vvvv
  • LabVIEW
  • NXT-G
  • Pure Data
  • Spreadsheets
  • Simulink
  • Mindscript - software visualization and development environment, open source
  • Subtext
  • Hyperpascal
  • Eiffel program design from BON or UML diagrams, with back-and-forth facilities round-trip engineering through EiffelStudio)
  • VEE
  • Limnor
  • Max
  • CODE
  • Fabrik
  • Quartz Composer
  • VisSim
  • Prograph
  • Tinkertoy
  • FlowStone DSP
  • Lava
  • EICASLAB

Some dataflow programming languages are also visual languages.

                                     

32. Wirth languages

Computer scientist Niklaus Wirth designed and implemented several influential languages.

  • Modula
  • Modula-2 and Modula 3, etc. variants
  • ALGOL W
  • Obliq Modula 3 variant
  • Oberon-2
  • Oberon
  • Component Pascal
  • Lagoona
  • Object Pascal original name for Borland Delphi language
  • Pascal
                                     

33. XML-आधारित भाषाएँ

These are languages based on or that operate on XML. Although the big-boy equivalents of Oracle/PostgreSQL/MSSQL dont yet exist for XML, there are languages to navigate through it and its more tree-oriented structure.

  • XPath
  • Ant
  • LZX
  • ECMAScript for XML
  • MXML
  • XMLmosaic
  • Jelly
  • XSLT
  • XQuery

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